Geographic area and nature and climatic conditions


The Republic of Dagestan is located in the eastern part of the North Caucasus. Its northern part is primarily a lowland region, while the southern part lays on foothills and Greater Caucasus mountains.


In the east Dagestan is washed by the Caspian Sea (its coastline outstretches for 350 km). It stretches for 400 km from north to south and for 200 km from west to east. Dagestan shares borders with Kalmykia, Chechen Republic and Stavropol Krai and state borders with Azerbaijan and Georgia.


The main rivers are Terek, Sulak, and Samur. The climate is temperate continental and arid. The average January temperature ranges from +1°C in the lowlands to -11°C in the mountains, and that of July reaches +24°C. Vegetation is presented by coniferous and deciduous forests.


The Republic of Dagestan was founded in 1921 as Dagestan ASSR, since 1991 it was Dagestan SSR, since 1992 it became the Republic of Dagestan. Its administrative capital is Makhachkala. As of January 2012, the total area was 50,300 km2 (0.29% of Russia's territory), population was estimated at 2,930,500 people (2.05% of Russia's population), and population density was 58.3 people/ km2, share of urban population was 45.14%.


Description of natural resources in the Republic of Dagestan as of January 2012*

Indicator Total area Timber reserves, mil. m3
Total area, th. km2


Area under forests, th. ha


Area under water bodies, th. ha


Marshy land, th. ha


Sand area, th. ha


Water reservoirs**, km2



Chirkey water reservoir


Irganai water reservoir


Aksai water reservoir


*According to data of the Department of the Federal Service for State Registration, Cadastral Records and Cartography and Territorial Agency for Subsurface Use for the Republic of Dagestan
** Water reservoirs of area more than 10 km2


Mineral resources

Oil and gas condensate field
named after V. Filanovskiy

The mineral base of Dagestan is represented by fuel and energy resources (oil, gas, peat, coal, oil shale), non-ferrous and rare metals (copper, strontium), non-metallic raw materials (molding and glass-making sand, raw materials for cement manufacture, limestone, dolomites, piezo-optic and quartz raw materials, barite, construction materials), underground waters (sweet, mineral, thermal, and industrial water).


Hydrocarbon deposits comprised of 44 fields, 26 of which are oil fields, 2 are gas condensate fields, 16 are oil and gas condensate fields along with 30 promising fields play a key role in the mineral base of Dagestan. Dagestan has three onshore oil and gas bearing areas: Tersko-Kumsky, Predgorny and Tersko-Sulaksky areas.


Ore minerals include copper pyrite ores of the Kizil-Dere deposits that produce such associated components as gold, silver, cobalt, selenium, cadmium, indium.


Specially protected natural sites of the Republic of Dagestan

Name Area, th. ha*
Dagestanian state natural reserve
Samurskiy state natural national park

* Data as of January 1, 2012