Geographic area and nature and climatic conditions

The Republic is situated in the northeast part of Caucasus and adjacent plains.


It stretches for 170 km from north to south and for 110 km from west to east with mountain relief in the south and plains in the north. It borders on the Republic of Dagestan, Ingushetia, North Ossetia-Alania, and the Stavropol Krai. It has state border with Georgia.


Main rivers are Terek, Sunzha, and Argun - all belonging to the Terek basin.


Climate is continental. Depending on altitude, ambient temperatures range from -6°C to +3°C in winter and from +20°C to +30°C in summer.


Vegetation: broadleaved plants grow at altitudes below 1,800 m, while alpine meadows are at higher altitudes.


Soils: chestnut and meadow soils.


The Chechen Republic was established in 1992. Its capital is the city of Grozny. As of January 1, 2012 the area of the Republic was 15,600 km2 (0.09% of the total area of the Russian Federation).


As of January 1, 2012 the population of the Republic is estimated at 1,302,200 people (0.91% of the population of the Russian Federation); the population density is 83.2 people per km2; a share of urban population is 34.89%.



Description of natural resources in the Republic of Dagestan as of January 2012*

Indicator Total area Timber reserves, mil. m3
Total area, th. km2**
Area under forests, th. ha
Marshy land, th. ha
Area under water bodies, th. ha

*According to data from the Ministry of Agriculture of the Chechen Republic
**According to Rosstat

Mineral resources

Grozny District oil fields

Identified and proven fields of the Republic include oil and gas fields, deposits of cement raw materials, and mineral water springs.


In the foothills region of the Republic, there are promising deposits of strontium and sulfur, in mountainous region – deposits of lead-zinc and copper ores, high quality ornamental and building stones. The strip adjacent to the Greater Caucasus range has promising polymetallic deposits.


Oil and gas reservoirs are buried in sands, broken sands, cavernous and fractured limestone, marls divided by Malm saliniferous rock formations, Neogene and Palaeogene clays, and chalk stone. The Republic has more than 30 of proven oil and gas fields, including: Starogroznenskoye, Goryacheistochnenskoye, Khayan-Kortovskoe, Pravoberezhnoe, Oktyabrskoe, Goit-Kortovskoe, Gorskoe (village of Ali-Yurt), Eldarovskoe, Bragunskoe, Severo-Bragunskoe, Benoiskoe, Datykhskoe, Gudermesskoe, Mineralnoe, Severo-Mineralnoe, Andreevskoe, Chervlenoe, Khankalskoe, Mesketinskoe, Severo-Dzhalkinskoe, Lesnoe, Ilinskoe and so on.


It has proven deposits of clay and limestone, gypsum and anhydrite, building stone, sand and gravel mix, building and silica sand. Deposits are located in immediate proximity to industrial centers in the central part of the Republic.


There are proven and exploited sulfide mineral water springs.


Specially protected natural sites of the Republic of Dagestan

Name Area, th. ha*
Shatoy state nature sanctuary
Argun historical and architectural museum preserve
Vedeno wildlife sanctuary
Urus-Martan wildlife sanctuary
Shali wildlife sanctuary
Argun wildlife sanctuary
Bragun wildlife sanctuary
Paraboch wildlife sanctuary
Steppe wildlife sanctuary
Grozny Greenbelt wildlife sanctuary

*As of January 1, 2012